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Institutional Analysis of Organizations

Page history last edited by David Touve 15 years ago

Institutional Analysis of Organizations

 Submitted by: W. R. Scott


Recommended texts:

Powell, Walter W., and Paul J. DiMaggio, ed. 1991.  The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis.  University of Chicago Press.

Campbell, John L. 2004.  Institutional Change and Globalization.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Scott, W. Richard 2001.  Institutions and Organizations, 2nd ed.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


**denotes Suggested supplementary reading



I.  Early Institutional Theory

W. R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, preface and chap. 1.

**C. H. Cooley, 1909.  “Institutions and the individual, in Social Organization, 313-326.

**E.C. Hughes 1939.  “Institutions,” in R.E. Park, ed. An Outline of the Principles of Sociology, 282-295.


II. Institutional Theory meets Organizations

W. R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, ch. 2.

P. Selznick 1957. Leadership in Administration, 1 22. Reprinted in 367 READER.

J. G. March and H. Simon, 1958. Organizations, 136 142. Reprinted in 367 READER.

P. Berger and T. Luckmann 1967. "Institutionalization" in The Social Construction of Reality,  47 67. Reprinted in 367 READER.

**P. Selznick 1949. TVA and the Grass Roots,  249 59.

**T. Parsons, 1990. "Prolegomena to a theory of social institutions," American Sociological Review 55:319 33 (essay written in 1934).

**T. Parsons, 1956. "A sociological approach to the theory of organizations," Administrative Science Quarterly 1: 63 85. Reprinted in T. Parsons, Structure and Process in Modern Societies, 1960.

**G. A. Fine and L. J. Ducharme 1995. "The ethnographic present: Images of institutional control in second school research," 108 35, in G. A. Fine, ed. A Second Chicago School?

**J. R. Searle, 1995. The Construction of Social Reality, 1 57.

**A. Schutz, 1932. The Phenomenology of the Social World. .


Ill. Foundations of Sociological Neo institutional Theory

    A. Initial Formulations

L. G. Zucker, 1977. "The role of institutionalization in cultural persistence," American Sociological Review  42: 726 43. Reprinted in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 83 107.

J. W. Meyer and B. Rowan 1977. "Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony," American Journal of Sociology 83: 340 63. Reprinted in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 41 62.

P. J. DiMaggio and W. W. Powell 1983. "The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields," American Sociological Review 48:147 170. Reprinted in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 63 82.

W. R. Scott and J. W. Meyer, "The organization of societal sectors: propositions and early evidence," in J. W. Meyer and W. R. Scott 1983 Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality, pp. 129 153. Reprinted in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 108 140.

**L. G. Zucker 1983. "Organizations as institutions," in S. B. Bacharach, ed., Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 2:1 47.

**J. W. Meyer 1983. "Institutionalization and the rationality of formal organizational structure," in J. W. Meyer and W. R. Scott, Organizational Environments,  216 282.


    B. Conceptual Refinement and Development

P. DiMaggio and W. Powell, "Introduction" in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 1 33

J.L.Campbell, Institutional Change and Globalization, ch. 1.

W.R. Scott.  Institutions and Organizations, ch. 3 and 4.

**R. L. Jepperson 1991. "Institutions, institutional effects and institutionalism," in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 143 163.

**W. W. Powell 1991. "Expanding the scope of institutional analysis," in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, 183 203.

**L. G. Zucker 1987. "Institutional theories of organizations," Annual Review of Sociology 13:443 464.

**0. E. Williamson, 1994. "Transaction cost economics and organization theory," in N. J. Smelser and R. Swedberg, eds., The Handbook of Economic Sociology,  pp. 77 86. (first part).

**P. H. Hall and R. C. R. Taylor, 1997. "The three new institutionalisms," Political Studies 44: 936 57.

**V. Nee, “The new institutionalisms in economics and sociology, in N. J. Smelser and R. Swedberg, eds., The Handbook of Economic Sociology, 2nd ed., pp. 49-74.

**R. L. Jepperson, 2002.  “The development and application of sociological neoinstitutionalism,” in J. Berger and M. Zelditch, Jr., eds. New Directions in Contemporary Theory, 229-66.


IV.  Institutional Processes

J.L. Campbell, “The problem of mechanisms,” in Institutional Change and Globalization, chap. 3


    A.  Construction

W. R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, ch. 5, first half, 91-114.

P. Pierson, 2004. “Positive feedback and path dependence,” pp. 17-40 (part of ch. 1) in Politics in Time, Princton U. Press.  Reprinted in 367 READER.J. W. Meyer, 1994.  “Rationalized environments,” in W. R. Scott and J. W. Meyer, ed. Institutional Environments and Organizations, 28-54.  Reprinted in 367 READER.

P. J. DiMaggio 1991. "Constructing an organizational field as a professional project: U.S. art museums, 1920 1940," in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism,  267 292.

M.C. Suchman, 1995. "Localism and globalism in institutional analysis: the emergence of contractual norms in venture finance," in W. R. Scott and S. Christensen, The Institutional Construction of Organizations, 39 63. Reprinted in 367 READER.

**M.C. Suchman Forthcoming. “Constructed ecologies: Reproduction and structuration in emerging organizational communities,” in How Institutions Change, ed. W.W. Powell and D.L.Jones.  University of Chicago Press.

**N. J. Fligstein and 1. Mara Drita, 1996. "How to make a market: Reflections on the attempt to create a single market in the European Union," American Journal of Sociology, 102:1 33.

**S. Brint and J. Karabel 1991. "Institutional origins and transformation: The case of American community colleges," in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism,  337 360.

**H. E. Aldrich and C. M. Fiol 1994. "Fools rush in? The institutional context of industry creation," Academy of Management Review 19: 645 670.

**Y Dezalay and B. G. Garth, 1996. Dealing in Virtue: International Commercial Arbitration and the Construction of a Transnational Legal Order.

**M Lounsbury, M. Ventresca, and P. M. Hirsch, 2003.  “Social movements, field frames and industry emergence: a cultural-political perspective on U.S. recycling,” Socio-Economic Review 1: 71-104.


    B.  Maintenance

Review Zucker 1977 in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism,  83-107.

B. Rowan, 1982. “Organizational structure and the institutional environment: The case of public schools,” Administrative Science Quarterly 17:159-79.

**A. Van de Ven and R. Garud 1994.  “The coevolution of technical and institutional events in the development of an innovation,” in J. A. E. Baum and J. Singh, Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations, 425-43.


    C.  Diffusion:

W. R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, chap. 5, second half, 114-23; and pp. 195-97; also review pp. 77-83.

D. G. Strang and J. W. Meyer 1993. "Institutional conditions for diffusion," Theory and Society 22: 487 511. Reprinted in Scott and Meyer, eds., Institutional Environments and Organizations, 100 112.  

P. Tolbert and L. G. Zucker, 1983. "Institutional sources of change in the formal structure of organizations; The diffusion of civil service reform, 1880 1935," Administrative Science Quarterly 30: 22 39.

**B. Czarniawska, and B. Joerges 1996.  “Travels of ideas,” in Translating Organizational Change, 13-48, ed. B. Czarniawska and G. Sevón.  Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

**D. G. Strang and S. A. Soule 1998.  “Diffusion in organizations and social movements: From hybrid corn to poison pills,” Annual Review of Sociology  24: 265-90.

**J. D. Westphal, R. Gulati, and S. M. Shortell, 1997. "Customization or conformity: An institutional and network perspective on the content and consequences of TQM adoption," Administrative Science Quarterly 42:366 94.

**J. N. Baron, F. R. Dobbin, and P. D. Jennings 1986. "War and peace: The evolution of modern personnel administration in U.S. industry," American Journal of Sociology 92: 350 383.

**W. R. Scott, 2003.  “Institutional carriers: Reviewing modes of transporting ideas over time and space and considering their consequences,” Industrial and Corporate Change 12: 879-94.


D. The Role of Ideas

R. Friedland and R. R. Alford, “Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices and institutional contradictions,” ch 10 in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, esp. pp. 240-60.

J.L. Campbell, Institutional Change and Globalization, chap. 4.

F. Dobbin, 1994. Forging Industrial Policy, chap. 1.  Cambridge University Press.     Reprinted in Sociology 387 READER

**K. Sahlen-Andersson, and L. Engwall, ed. 2002.  The Expansion of Management Knowledge.  Stanford University Press.

**M.J. Ventresca, and J.W. Mohr 2002.  “Archival research methods,” in The Blackwell Companion to Organizations, 805-28, ed. J.A.C. Baum.  Blackwell.



V. Institutional Processes at Multiple Levels


    A.  Institutional Processes and Societal Systems

W. R. Scott INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS, chap. 6, part, pp. 125-36. 

Review Dobbin, 1994.

N. W. Biggart and M. F. Guillen 1999.  “Developing difference: Social organization and the rise of the auto industries of South Korea, Taiwan, Spain, and Argentina,” American Sociological Review, 64:722-47.



**M. Orru, N. W. Biggart, and G. G. Hamilton 1991. "Organizational isomorphism in East Asia," in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism,  361 389.


**R. Whitley 1992. The social construction of organizations and markets," in M. Reed and M. Hughes, eds., Rethinking Organizations, 120 143.






B.  Institutional Processes and Organizational Fields


W. R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, chap. 6, part ,136-145.


P. DiMaggio 1983. "State expansion and organizational fields," in R. H. Hall and R. Quinn, eds., Organization Theory and Public Policy, 147 161. Reprinted in 367 READER.


A.J.Hoffman, 2001.  “Linking organizational and field-level analysis,” Organization & Environment, 14:133-56.  Reprinted in 367 READER.



**J. L. Campbell and L. W. Lindberg 1990. "Property rights and the organization of economic activities by the state," American Sociological Review, 55:634 647.



C.  Institutional Processes and Populations


W.R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, chap. 6, part, 145-49.



**G. R. Carroll and M. T. Hannan 1989. "Density dependence in the evolution of populations of newspaper organizations," American Sociological Review 524 48. With comment by L. Zucker and rejoinder by Carroll and Hannan.


**J. A. C. Baum and C. Oliver 1992. "Institutional embeddedness and the dynamics of organizational populations," American Sociological Review  57:540-59.



**M. T. Hannan, G. R. Carroll, E. A. Dundon and J. C. Torres 1995. "Organizational evolution in a multinational context," American Sociological Review 60: 509 528. With comments by J. A. C. Baum and W. W. Powell and rejoinder by Hannan and Carroll, pp. 529 544.


**J. V. Singh, D. J. Tucker and R. J. House, 1986. "Organizational legitimacy and the liability of newness," Administrative Science Quarterly 31:171 193.


**J.A.C. Baum, 1996.  “Organizational Ecology,” in S. R. Clegg, C. Hardy and W. Nord, eds, Handbook of Organization Studies,  77-114.





D. Institutional Processes and Organizations


W. R. Scott  Institutions and Organizations,  ch. 7.


1.  Effects of Rationalization, Complexity, Ambiguity, Conflict


L. B. Edelman 1992. "Legal ambiguity and symbolic structures: Organizational mediation of civil rights law," American Journal of Sociology 97:1531 1576.



**D. Guthrie and L. M. Roth 1999.  “The state, courts, and maternity policies in U.S. organizations: Specifying institutional mechanisms,” American Sociological Review 64:41-63. 


**W. W. Powell 1988. "Institutional effects on organizational structure and performance," in L. G. Zucker, Institutional Patterns and Organizations, 115 136.


**D. Stark 1996.  “Recombinant property in East European capitalism,” American Journal of Sociology 101: 993-1027.


**M. Ruef and W. R. Scott 1998 "A multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy: Hospital survival in changing institutional environments," Administrative Science Quarterly  43: 877-904.


**F. R. Dobbin, J. R. Sutton, J. W. Meyer and W. R. Scott 1993. "Equal opportunity law and the construction of internal labor markets," American Journal of Sociology  99: 396 417. Reprinted in Scott and Meyer, Institutional Environments and Organizations,  272 300.


**J.W. Meyer, W. R. Scott, and D. Strang 1987. "Centralization, fragmentation and school district complexity," Administrative Science Quarterly 32:186 201. Reprinted in Scott and Meyer, 1994. Institutional Environments and Organizations, 160 178.


**T. D'Aunno, R. 1. Sutton, and R. H. Price 1991. "Isomorphism and external support in conflicting institutional environments: A study of drug abuse treatment centers," Academy of Management Journal 34:636 60.


**O.N. Basu, M. W. Dirsmith, and P. P. Gupta, 1999.  “The coupling of the symbolic and the technical in an institutionalized context: The negotiated order of the GAO’s audit reporting process,” American Sociological Review 64:506-26.


**M. Lounsbury, 2001.  “Institutional sources of practice variation: Staffing college and university recycling programs,” Administrative Science Quarterly 46:29-56.   


**J. N. Baron, M. T. Hannan, and M. D. Burton, 1999.  “Building the iron cage: Determinants of managerial intensity in the early years of organizations,” American Sociological Review 64:527-47.



      2.  Strategic Responses


C. Oliver, 1991. "Strategic responses to institutional processes," Academy of Management Review 16:145 159 (first part).



**J.D. Westphal and E. J. Zajac 1994.  “Substance and symbolism in CEOs” long-term incentives plans,” Administrative science Quarterly 39:367-390.


**E. Goodrick and G. R. Salancik, 1996. "Organizational discretion in responding to institutional practices: Hospitals and Cesarean births," Administrative Science Quarterly  41:1 28. Reprinted in 367 READER.


**M. C. Suchman 1995. "Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches," Academy of Management Review  20:571 610.


**S. Christensen, P. Karnoe, J. S. Pedersen and F. Dobbin 1997. eds. "Action in Institutions," special issue of American Behavioral Scientist 49, Feb.



November 23  No Class: Thanksgiving Holiday







VI. Institutional Change


W. R. Scott, Institutions and Organizations, chap. 8.


J. L. Campbell, Institutional Change and Globalization, chap. 2


W. Sewell 1992.  “A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation,” American Journal of Sociology (second half), 13-29. 


S. Barley 1986. "Technology as an occasion for structuring: Evidence from observations of CT scanners and the social order of radiology departments," Administrative Science Quarterly 31: 78 108.


R. Greenwood and C. R. Hinnings 1993. " Understanding strategic change: The contribution of archetypes," Academy of Management Journal 36: 1052 81.



**R. Greenwood and C. R. Hinnings 1996. “Understanding radical organizational change: Bringing together the old and the new institutionalism,” Academy of Management Review 21: 1022-54.


**S. Barley and P. S. Tolbert 1997. “Institutionalization and structuration: Studying the links between action and institution,” Organization Studies 18:93-117.


**E. S. Clemens, 1993.  “Organizational repertoires and institutional change: Women’s groups and the transformation of U.S. politics, 1890-1920,” American Journal of Sociology 98:755-98.






Institutional Change (continued)


N. Fligstein, 1991.  “The structural transformation of American industry,” in Powell and DiMaggio, The New Institutionalism, THE NEW INSTITUTIONALISM, 311-36.


H. Rao 2003.  “Institutional Change in Toque Ville: Novelle Cuisine as an identity movement in French gastronomy,” American Journal of Sociology 108:795-843.  Reprinted in 367 READER.


W. R. Scott, 2004.  “Competing logics in health care: Professional, state, and mangerial,” in Frank Dobbin, ed., The Sociology of the Economy, 267-87.  New York: Russell Sage Foundation.  Reprinted in 367 Reader.



**H.A. Haveman, and H. Rao 1997.  “Structuring a theory of moral sentiments: Institutional and organizational coevolution in the early thrift industry,” American Journal of Sociology 102:1606-51


**M. Schneiberg and S. A. Soule, 2005.  “Institutionalization as a contested, multilevel process,” in G. F. Davis, et al., Social Movements and Organization Theory, 122-60.


**J.L. Campbell, Institutional Change and Globalization, chap. 5.


**P. Holm, 1995. "The dynamics of institutionalization: Transformation processes in Norwegian fisheries," Administrative Science Quarterly, 40; 398 421. 


**A. J. Hoffman 1997.  From Heresy to Dogma: An Institutional History of Corporate Environmentalism.  San Francisco: New Lexington Press; reissued 1999, Stanford University Press.


**T. D’Aunno, M. Succi and J. A. Alexander 2000.  “The role of institutional and market forces in divergent institutional change,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 679-703. 


**W. R. Scott, M. Ruef, P. Mendel and C. A. Caronna, 200. Institutional Change and Healthcare Organizations,.  University of Chicago Press.


**W. R. Scott, P. Mendel and S. Pollack, 1996 (draft).  "Environments and fields: Studying the evolution of a field of medical care organizations," in W. W. Powell and D. L. Jones, eds., How Institutions Change.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  Forthcoming. 


**R. Whitley, 1999.  Divergent Capitalisms.


**M. T. Dacin, J. Goodstein, and W. R. Scott (eds) 2002.  “Institutional Theory and Institutional Change,” Special issue of Academy of Management Journal 45: 45-290. 









Vll. Accomplishments, Concerns and New Directions


Scott, W. R. Institutions and Organizations, ch. 8.



**Stinchcombe, A. 1997. "On the virtues of the old institutionalism," Annual Review of Sociology, 23: 1 18.


**Hirsch, P. M., and M. Lounsbury, 1997. "Toward a reconciliation of 'old' and 'new' institutionalism," American Behavioral Scientist  40:406 18.


**Hirsch, P.M., 1997. "Review essay: Sociology without social structure: Neoinstitutional theory meets brave new world," American Journal of Sociology 102:1702 23.


**P. Selznick, 1996. "Institutionalism 'old' and 'new'," Administrative Science Quarterly 40: 270 277.


**P. Tolbert and L. G. Zucker 1996. "The institutionalization of institutional theory," in S. R. Clegg, C. Hardy, W. R. Nord, eds. Handbook of Organization Studies, 175 90.


**E. S. Clemens and J. M. Cook 1999.  “Politics and institutionalism: Explaining durability and change,” Annual Review of Sociology 25:441-66.


**K. D. Elsbach 2002.  “Intraorganizational institutions,” in J.A.C. Baum, ed. Blackwell Companion to Organizations, 37-56.


**D. A. Palmer and N. W. Biggart 2002.  “Organizational institutions,” in J.A.C. Baum, ed. Blackwell Companion to Organizations, 259-80. 


**D. Strang and W. D. Sine, 2002.  “Interorganizational institutions,” in J.A.C. Baum, ed., Blackwell Companion to Organizations,  497-519.






Supplementary Readings: The following books contain much relevant material.   


M. C. Brinton and V. Nee, eds., 1998. The New Institutionalism in Sociology. Russell Sage Foundation.


N. Brunsson and J. P. Olsen, 1998.  Organizing Organizations.   Fagbokforlaget.


S. Christensen et al, eds., 1997. “Action in Institutions,” special issue of American Behavioral Scientist,  40, Feb.


T. Dacin, J. Goodstein, and W. R. Scott, eds. 2002. “Institutional Change,” special issue of the Academy of Management Journal, Feb.


G. F. David, D. McAdam, W. R. Scott, & M. N. Zald, ed. 2005.  Social Movements and Organization Theory.  Cambridge University Press.


A. J. Hoffman and M. J. Ventresca, eds.  2002.  Organizations, Policy and the Natural Environment: Institutional and Strategic Perspectives.  Stanford: Stanford University Press.


R. N. Langlois, ed. 1986.  Ecomics as a Process: Essays in the New Institutional Economics.  Cambridge University Press.


J. G. March and J. P. Olsen, 1989. Rediscovering Institutions.   Free Press.


J. W. Meyer and W. R. Scott, eds. 1983. Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality.  Sage, (updated ed. 1992).


D. C. North  1990.  Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance.   Cambridge University Press.


D. C. North, 2005.  Understanding the Process of Economic Change.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


B. G. Peters, 1999.  Institutional Theory in Political Science.   Pinter.


Pierson, P. 2004.  Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis.    Princeton University Press.


W. R. Scott and J. W. Meyer, eds. 1994.  Institutional Environments and Organizations: Structural Complexity and Individualism.  Sage.


W. R. Scott and S. Christensen, eds., 1995.  The Institutional Construction of Organizations: International and Longitudinal Studies.   Sage.


N. J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg, eds. 1994.  Handbook of Economic Sociology, Princeton U. Press, especially essays by Paul DiMaggio and Geoffrey Hodgson.


N. J. Smelser and Richard Swedberg, ed. 2005.  Handbook of Economic Sociology.  Princeton U. Press, esp. essays by Frank Dobbin, Victor Nee, Davis, and Edelman and Stryker.


L. G. Zucker, ed., 1988.  Institutional Patterns and Organizations.  Ballinger.



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